Updated on:

The Gut Health Guide - Practical Tips and Insights for Optimal Wellness

Share this article

General Introduction

Gut health is a crucial aspect of overall well-being, influencing everything from digestion to immune function. By making the right dietary choices and adopting healthy lifestyle habits, you can support a balanced gut microbiome and enjoy better health. In this article, we'll explore practical tips and scientific insights to help you improve your gut health, including the use of probiotics.

Key Takeaways

  • Maintain a balanced diet rich in fibre, probiotics, and prebiotics
  • Stay hydrated to support digestion and prevent constipation
  • Follow a consistent sleep schedule to promote a healthy gut microbiome
  • Consider probiotic supplements to support gut health

The Gut Microbiome: A Gateway to Overall Health

The gut microbiome plays a vital role in overall health, extending beyond just digestion. When the gut microbiome becomes imbalanced (dysbiosis), it can lead to inflammation, increased permeability ("leaky gut"), and various health issues, including food sensitivities, allergies, and autoimmune diseases 1 2 .

The Gut-Brain Axis: A Two-Way Communication Network

The gut-brain axis is a complex communication network connecting the central nervous system (brain) and the gastrointestinal tract 3 . A balanced microbiome promotes gut barrier integrity, immune homeostasis, and neurotransmitter production 4 . Conversely, dysbiosis can contribute to increased intestinal permeability, inflammation, and altered neurotransmitter signalling, which can manifest as various neurological and psychiatric conditions, including anxiety, depression, and cognitive decline 5 .

Image of the digestive system

Common Digestive Disruptors

  • IBS: Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a common digestive disorder characterized by symptoms like bloating, abdominal pain, and changes in bowel habits.
  • IBD: Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), which includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is a group of disorders that cause chronic inflammation in the digestive tract.
  • SIBO: Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO) occurs when excessive bacterial populations in the small intestine cause symptoms like bloating, gas, constipation, and diarrhoea.
  • Candida: Candida overgrowth, an excess of yeast in the body, can worsen existing digestive diseases like ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

Environmental Toxins and Gut Health

We are constantly exposed to environmental toxins through water, food, and air 6 . These toxins, along with those produced by an unbalanced microbiome, can contribute to various health issues 7 . For example, the gut serves as a primary source of toxins for the liver, which then processes them for elimination. Overall, a balanced gut microbiome can significantly improve overall health and well-being.

Sleep, Stress and the Microbiome

Sleep and the gut microbiome exhibit a bidirectional relationship. Adequate sleep is crucial for maintaining a balanced gut microbiome, while the gut microbiome, in turn, plays a role in sleep regulation by producing neurotransmitters like serotonin and GABA 8 9 10 . Chronic sleep deprivation can disrupt these processes and contribute to dysbiosis. Meanwhile, exposure to stressors can disrupt the stability of the intestinal microbiota, reducing microbial richness and diversity, and increasing susceptibility to infections.

The Gut Microbiome and Skin Health

The gut microbiome plays a significant role in skin health. Imbalances in the gut microbiome have been linked to various skin conditions, including eczema, psoriasis, acne, dandruff, and even skin cancer 11 . Dysbiosis can trigger changes in the immune system that promote the development of these skin diseases.

Practical Tips to Improve Gut Health

There could be many ways to improve your gut health. However, a single factor is unlikely to reap many benefits; hence, below is a summary of things you could do to assist your healthy gut and gut microbiome.

Newsletter Cover

Join the community

Be the first to know about UniClinic's news, content, information and more! You can unsubscribe at any time.

1. Eat More Fibre-Rich Foods

Dietary fibre is essential for gut health as it helps feed the beneficial bacteria in the gut microbiome. Fibre passes through the digestive system largely intact, acting as a prebiotic that provides nourishment for good bacteria to thrive.

High-fibre foods include:

  • Whole grains like oats, quinoa, brown rice
  • Fruits like berries, pears, avocado
  • Vegetables like broccoli, Brussels sprouts, artichokes
  • Legumes like lentils, black beans, chickpeas
  • Nuts and seeds like almonds, chia, flaxseeds

For an adult, it is recommended to aim for 25-30 grams of fibre per day 12 from a variety of plant sources. To avoid gas and bloating, try to increase fibre intake gradually.

Below is a table summarising common food sources and their fibre content per serving 13 14 15

Food Source Average Fibre Range per Serving
Lentils 12.6-13g per cup
Black beans 12.4-13g per cup
Chia seeds 4.1g per tablespoon - 8g per ounce
Avocado 3-7g per fruit
Green peas 6.5g per cup
Brussels sprouts 3.7g per cup
Chickpeas 4g per cup
Carrots 3.6g per cup
Pears 3.1g per pear
probiotics photo, kefir

2. Fermented Foods

Fermented foods are rich in probiotics and could be beneficial for our gut health. Probiotics help populate the gut with healthy microbes and promote a balanced microbiome. Some fermented food sources include:

  • Yoghurt with live active cultures
  • Kefir (a fermented milk drink)
  • Sauerkraut and kimchi
  • Miso, tempeh, natto
  • Kombucha (fermented tea)

Whilst fermented foods may not be for everyone’s taste you could try to include 1-2 servings in your diet for variety.

3. Limit Ultra-Processed Foods

Highly processed foods tend to be low in fibre and nutrients while high in added sugars, salt, and unhealthy fats. This can feed unhealthy gut bacteria and lead to dysbiosis (imbalance). Ultra-processed foods to limit include:

  • Fast food and frozen meals
  • Processed meats like hot dogs
  • Sugary cereals and baked goods
  • Chips, crisps, crackers, and other packaged snacks
  • Sodas and other sugary beverages

What does science tell us about processed food?

Two major European studies 16 17 reveal a striking connection between our diet and health. Consuming more ultra-processed foods, such as sugary snacks and ready meals, can significantly elevate the risk of heart disease and premature death. Just a 10% increase in these foods boosts heart disease risk by 12-13%, and consuming over four servings daily raises mortality risk by a staggering 62%. These findings underscore the importance of choosing fresh, minimally processed foods for a healthier, longer life.

healthy food image

4. Consider Probiotics

Probiotics, found in yoghurts and supplements, are live bacteria thought to restore gut balance and may help with conditions like IBS, but their health benefits lack strong evidence. While generally safe for healthy individuals, their effectiveness varies, and those with health conditions should consult a doctor before use.

Here are some tips if you are considering taking probiotics:

  • Choose quality supplements with research-backed strains
  • Take the recommended dosage
  • Give it time to work (4-8 weeks)
  • Combine with prebiotics for added benefits

Some examples of popular probiotic brands:

Brand Description
Optibac Probiotics Utilizes extensively researched and clinically-trialed probiotic strains like NCFM®, GG, and GR-1®
Bio-Kult Bio-Kult is an advanced multi-strain probiotic formulation containing 14 live bacterial strains
Culturelle Culturelle is a leading probiotic supplement brand containing the strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG).
Symprove Symprove is a water-based probiotic drink containing 4 live and active bacteria strains. Clinical trials at King's College Hospital found it beneficial for IBS, diverticular disease, and gut health.
VSL#3 A high-potency probiotic brand widely available and popular in the UK. It is a concentrated probiotic formulation containing a proprietary blend of 8 live lactic acid bacteria strains.

Uniclinic has partnered with Symprove to offer a 50% discount on their range of gut health supplements, making it easier than ever to support your digestive well-being.

Before using probiotics, speak to your doctor or a pharmacist first, especially if you have underlying conditions.

5. Stay Hydrated

Drinking enough fluids, especially water, is important for healthy digestion and allowing gut bacteria to thrive. Dehydration can lead to constipation and gut discomfort. Aim for at least 6-8 18 cups of water and other fluids daily. Teas, broths, and fruits/veggies with high water content also contribute to hydration.

6. Get Enough Sleep

Lack of quality sleep has been linked to dysbiosis and lower microbiome diversity. Furthermore, sleep deprivation could disrupt gut microbiota, weaken the immune system, disrupt glucose metabolism, and also impair cognitive functions. Studies show that key gut microbiota-derived metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) levels drop significantly with prolonged sleep deprivation 19 . SCFAs support nutrient absorption, reduce intestinal permeability, promote mucus secretion, and influence both peripheral and central nervous systems, aiding processes like intestinal glucose production and enhancing cognitive functions.

Aim for 7-9 hours per night 20 of uninterrupted sleep. Some simple tips to improve sleep by:

  • Sticking to a regular schedule
  • Creating a relaxing bedtime routine
  • Avoiding screens before bed
  • Keeping the bedroom dark, cool and quiet


In conclusion, gut health is a crucial aspect of overall well-being that influences various bodily functions, from digestion to mental health. By understanding the complex interplay between the gut microbiome, diet, sleep, and environmental factors, we can take proactive steps to support optimal gut health and improve our overall quality of life.
Practical tips for improving gut health include consuming a balanced diet rich in fibre, probiotics, and prebiotics while limiting ultra-processed foods. Staying hydrated, getting adequate sleep, and considering the use of quality probiotic supplements can further support a healthy gut microbiome.

It's essential to recognise that gut health is a journey, and small, consistent lifestyle and dietary habits changes can lead to significant improvements over time. By prioritising gut health and making informed choices, we can unlock the potential for better digestion, enhanced immune function, improved mental well-being, and a more vibrant, healthier life.

Reach out to our doctors at UniClinic for further guidance or to schedule an appointment if you have concerns about your gut health.

Disclaimer: The information provided is for general educational purposes and should not be considered a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment.


  1. Bull, M. J., & Plummer, N. T. (2014). Part 1: The Human Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease. Integrative Medicine (Encinitas, Calif.), 13(6), 17–22. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4566439/
  2. Olvera-Rosales, L.-B., Cruz-Guerrero, A.-E., Ramírez-Moreno, E., Quintero-Lira, A., Contreras-López, E., Jaimez-Ordaz, J., Castañeda-Ovando, A., Añorve-Morga, J., Calderón-Ramos, Z.-G., Arias-Rico, J., & González-Olivares, L.-G. (2021). Impact of the Gut Microbiota Balance on the Health–Disease Relationship: The Importance of Consuming Probiotics and Prebiotics. Foods, 10(6), 1261. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061261
  3. Carabotti, M., Scirocco, A., Maselli, M. A., & Severi, C. (2015). The gut-brain axis: interactions between enteric microbiota, central and enteric nervous systems. Annals of Gastroenterology, 28(2), 203–209. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4367209/
  4. Appleton, J. (2018). The Gut-Brain Axis: Influence of Microbiota on Mood and Mental Health. Integrative Medicine: A Clinician’s Journal,17(4), pp.28–32. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6469458/.
  5. https://psychscenehub.com/psychinsights/the-simplified-guide-to-the-gut-brain-axis/
  6. Mehndiratta, M., Aggarwal, V., Wasay, M., & Garg, D. (2022). Environmental toxins and brain/: Life on earth is in danger. Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology, 0(0), 0. https://doi.org/10.4103/aian.aian_169_22
  7. Shetty, S., Deepthi, Harshitha, Shipra Sonkusare, Naik, P., Suchetha Kumari N, & Harishkumar Madhyastha. (2023). Environmental pollutants and their effects on human health. Heliyon, 9(9), e19496–e19496. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e19496
  8. Smith, R. P., Easson, C., Lyle, S. M., Kapoor, R., Donnelly, C. P., Davidson, E. J., Parikh, E., Lopez, J. V., & Tartar, J. L. (2019). Gut microbiome diversity is associated with sleep physiology in humans. PLoS ONE, 14(10). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0222394
  9. Chen, Y., Xu, J., & Chen, Y. (2021). Regulation of Neurotransmitters by the Gut Microbiota and Effects on Cognition in Neurological Disorders. Nutrients, 13(6), 2099. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13062099
  10. Yan, L., Deng, Q., & Liu, Z. (2023). The relationship between gut microbiota and insomnia: a bi-directional two-sample Mendelian randomization research. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 13. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2023.1296417
  11. De Pessemier, B., Grine, L., Debaere, M., Maes, A., Paetzold, B., & Callewaert, C. (2021). Gut–Skin Axis: Current Knowledge of the Interrelationship between Microbial Dysbiosis and Skin Conditions. Microorganisms, 9(2).
  12. https://www.nhs.uk/live-well/eat-well/digestive-health/how-to-get-more-fibre-into-your-diet/
  13. https://www.webmd.com/diet/features/top-10-sources-of-fiber
  14. https://www.dietaryguidelines.gov/resources/2020-2025-dietary-guidelines-online-materials/food-sources-select-nutrients/food-0
  15. https://www.nhs.uk/live-well/eat-well/digestive-health/how-to-get-more-fibre-into-your-diet/
  16. Srour, B., Fezeu, L. K., Kesse-Guyot, E., Allès, B., Méjean, C., Andrianasolo, R. M., Chazelas, E., Deschasaux, M., Hercberg, S., Galan, P., Monteiro, C. A., Julia, C., & Touvier, M. (2019). Ultra-processed food intake and risk of cardiovascular disease: prospective cohort study (NutriNet-Santé). BMJ365(8201), l1451. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l1451
  17. Rico-Campà, A., Martínez-González, M. A., Alvarez-Alvarez, I., Mendonça, R. de D., de la Fuente-Arrillaga, C., Gómez-Donoso, C., & Bes-Rastrollo, M. (2019). Association between consumption of ultra-processed foods and all cause mortality: SUN prospective cohort study. BMJ365, l1949. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l1949
  18. https://www.nhs.uk/live-well/eat-well/food-guidelines-and-food-labels/
  19. Sun, J., Fang, D., Wang, Z., & Liu, Y. (2023). Sleep Deprivation and Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis: Current Understandings and Implications. International Journal of Molecular Sciences24(11), 9603–9603. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24119603
  20. https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/insomnia/